Physicists Biographies

# Archimedes

Archimedes was a Greek physicist, inventor and mathematician. His inventions became famous all over the world, and some of them were used as weapons of war.

Archimedes was a physicist, mathematician and inventor born in 287 BC in the Greek colony of Syracuse, Sicily. Son of the astronomer Fídeas, he studied at the Mathematics School of Alexandria, where he had contact with the most technological at the time.

After completing his studies, Archimedes returned to Syracuse and began the development of his projects. The scientist became very famous because of his revolutionary inventions. The Archimedes Screw, used to raise water , and the catapults , weapons of war, are examples of creations developed by the physicist. Another important invention of the scholar was the use of levers to move heavy loads. Concerning this, Archimedes himself said: “Give me a fulcrum and a lever and I will move the world.”

history of thrust

Perhaps one of the most famous stories about Archimedes’ discoveries is that of Archimedes’ Theorem , also called buoyancy . Once, King Hieron wished to offer a crown to his gods. For this, he hired a goldsmith and gave him a portion of silver and a portion of gold powder to make a crown worthy of an offering. Upon receiving the ornament, Hieron was suspicious of the amount of gold used in its manufacture and, as there was no evidence to incriminate the goldsmith, he asked Archimedes to find the truth.

During his bath time, the scientist noticed that when he immersed his body in the bathtub, the water level rose. Then Archimedes understood that he could find the truth about the crown. The story also tells that, realizing that he could solve the king’s doubt, the scientist ran out, completely naked, shouting “Eureka!”, “Eureka!” (“I found it!”, “I found it!”) .

Archimedes prepared blocks of silver and gold with the same weight as the crown and, dipping one at a time into a container of water, observed the increase in the levels of the liquid. Realizing that the volume of water displaced by the two blocks was different, Archimedes was able to determine the approximate masses of gold and silver used in the making of the crown.

This experiment led the scientist to define what we now call Archimedes’ principle : every body immersed in a fluid experiences a force, vertical and upward, which is equal to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced by the body. The force Archimedes referred to is called buoyancy .

Archimedes died in the year 212 BC, during the Second Punic War , when the Romans invaded his city. Even under orders to keep him alive, a soldier struck the inventor with a sword.