Compton effect

American physicist Arthur Holly Compton received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923 thanks to the experiments that developed the Compton Effect.

Arthur Holly Compton (1892 – 1962), American physicist, observed in 1923 the Compton Effect for which he received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1927.

In his experiments, Compton made x-rays focus on a graphite target. The incident wavelength (x-rays) was measured initially and was unique. After the collision between x-rays and the target, the scattering of x-rays was verified.
The scattered rays were analyzed and Compton noticed the presence of x-rays with the same wavelength as the one he had focused on the target, and also x-rays with a shorter wavelength.
The emerging rays that have the same wavelength as the incident one comes from the interaction between x-rays and the graphite target electron, in which the electron absorbs all the energy carried by the x-rays and retreats from orbital. After a period of time, the electron returns to the orbital in which it was emitting all the energy that was absorbed.
The emerging rays have a shorter wavelength than the incident due to the interaction between x-rays and the graphite target electron, in which the electron partially absorbs the energy* transported by the x-rays, and the remaining energy will be associated with the emerging rays, which will have a shorter wavelength. wave that incidents.
This effect occurs due to the dual nature of light, which in this phenomenon behaves like a particle in which x-rays are called photons.

* the energy being partially transferred to the electron does not mean that the x-ray photon was split, because the photon is indivisible. What happens is a transfer of momentum, which causes a change in its energy.

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