The drill is a machine that emerged in the nineteenth century but the principle of using rotary motion to drill dates back much earlier, more precisely from 2700 BC. This is why it is important and interesting to know how a drill works. and its evolution to the present .
What is a drill?
A drill is a machine with which perforations or holes are made in parts or materials. For this, he prints two movements on another piece in charge of making the holes: one of rotation and the other of advance.
The drilling process is considered one of the most important in machining due to its ease of implementation and its importance in the components that are machined.
What is a drill used for?
As we already mentioned, the main function of the drill is to make a hole in a material for a specific purpose. But the drill also has other functions that adapt to different needs. The functions of a drill are:
- Drilled: It is the main function of the drill where the hole is made when a rotating bit or bit comes into contact with another material and it begins to be drilled.
- Striker: It is when the hole is made by blows of great power. They are recommended when the material to be drilled is very hard.
- Sanding: As we mentioned, the drill is a machine that rotates another piece. In the case of wanting to perforate, a perforating piece is used. But if you put on sandpaper , the rotary movement makes the sanding process much easier. It can be used for wood , metal , among others.
- Screw or unscrew: To screw or unscrew a piece we need to perform a rotary movement with the screwdriver . Therefore, if we place a screwdriver at the tip of the drill, the rotary movement is carried out by the machine. They are less powerful drills and can be battery -powered to facilitate their transfer.
- Grinding: With a suitable head, the drill can be used to carve or engrave on glass or metal.
- Sharpen: If we place a circular stone in the head, and pass the profile of a piece, tool through the stone while it rotates, it is sharpened .
How a drill works?
There are many types of drills that adapt to different needs when drilling. But all drills have the same operating principle , they vary in that some have more power and less precision, others use more advanced technology to obtain better results, etc.
A drill consists of a power source, which powers a motor . In most cases, this source of energy is electric, but it can be pneumatic, hydraulic, among others. The electrical energy reaches a capacitor, which when we pull the trigger, lets the energy pass to the motor .
When the motor receives power , it starts to work by turning gears that transmit the movement to the drill. Then we manipulate the drill from the handle and put the bit in contact with the surface that we want to drill.
Types of drills
There are different classifications for drills . Drills can be classified according to the energy source they use to operate, and they can also be classified according to the function they fulfill.
Types of drills according to the energy source
- Manual drills: They were widely used in ancient times. The rotation of the drill is done by man, manually. They are not very efficient, and bad ergonomically, but they are cheap and are used to make holes in soft materials.
- Electric drills: They use electrical energy to rotate. It has great applications and there are many models. The battery-powered drill stands out because it is not connected to an electrical outlet .
- Pneumatic or hydraulic drills: They use the force of air or water to drill. They are used in industries where there is a compressed air installation.
Types of drills according to the function they perform
As we mentioned in previous paragraphs, the drill is not only used for drilling but also for other functions. That is why there are drills according to the different functions they can perform.
- Percussive drills: In addition to turning this drill, it can perform rectilinear movements inwards and outwards, generating slight blows on the surface to be drilled. It is used for hard material surfaces.
- Reversible drills: They can rotate in both directions.
- Electronic drills: These have speed regulators, so they can be used both for screwing and for polishing or drilling.
- Bench or column drill: They are fixed drills that generally have more power and are used in workshops. Being fixed, what moves is the piece.
Parts of a drill
The parts of a drill are:
- Holder of wicks or bits. It is the part of the drill that holds and adjusts the piece with which the work is going to be done. If it is drilling, it will be a wick. In case it is for sanding, for example, it will be a circular sandpaper.
- Wick or mandrel adjustment. It is what allows the wick holder to firmly hold the wick.
- On/Off switch. Allows you to turn the drill on and off.
- Engine fan . Cools the engine so it doesn’t overheat.
- Striker switch. Allows you to activate or deactivate the striker blows.
- Mango. It allows to hold the drill to make the perforation.
- Direction of rotation button . Allows changing the direction of rotation of the bit or bit.
- Electrical current input . It is the cable that connects the drill with the electrical power source.
How to choose a drill
When choosing a drill, the following characteristics must be taken into account .
- Power: The recommended minimum power for a drill to be used in a house is 500W.
- Rotation speed : Drills with speed regulators are recommended if we plan to use it for different tasks.
- Hammer: In case we know that we are going to use the drill to drill hard surfaces, it is recommended that it have the hammer function.
- Wireless: They are more comfortable and easier to manipulate. They are generally of lower power than those with cable.
- Brand: The most recommended and trusted brands are: Bosch, Black and Decker and Skill