Modern Physics

# Dynamic Electricity: How It’s Produced, Types, Examples

The dynamic energy , known as electric current corresponds to the electron flow through a conductor of electricity. This flux usually originates due to a difference in electrical potential. Energy sources can be chemical (batteries) and electromechanical (eg hydraulic generators).

Conductors can be solid, liquid or gaseous, as the movement of electrons is produced by any means, depending on their resistance to electrical conductivity.

## How is it produced?

Undoubtedly, the fact that electric current is associated with dynamism implies movement. Therefore, this phenomenon is studied through the branch of physics called electrodynamics.

As mentioned earlier, the movement of electrons is due to the difference in voltage (voltage) between two points, which must be connected by an electrically conductive material.

This results in the presence of an electric field which, in turn, induces the flow of electricity through the system.

In order for electrons to move, they must leave the nucleus of an atom with a balanced electrical charge, which is when a free electron is generated. They are called moving charge particles and they are what allow the flow of electricity under the action of an electric field.

The electric field can be presented thanks to mechanisms for generating electromechanical, thermoelectric, hydraulic or electrochemical cells, such as vehicle batteries, among others.

Regardless of the electric power generation process, each mechanism has a potential difference at its ends. In the case of direct current (eg chemical batteries), the battery outputs have a positive and a negative terminal.

When the two ends are connected to a conducting circuit, the circulation of electric current through it becomes favorable, giving rise to dynamic electricity.

## Types

Depending on its nature and circulation characteristics, dynamic electricity can be continuous or direct. Here is a brief description of each type of dynamic electricity:

### Direct current

This type of current flows in only one direction, without fluctuations or disturbances in the flow.

If the route taken over time is plotted, a straight and perfectly horizontal line will be appreciated, as long as the level of stress (stress) remains constant over time.

In this type of dynamic electricity, electrical current always flows in the same direction; that is, the positive and negative terminals maintain their polarity at all times, they never alternate.

One of the biggest disadvantages of direct current, known as DC for its acronym in English ( direct current ), is the low resistance of conductors when transmitting electrical energy with high voltage levels and long distances.

The heating that occurs in the conductors through which direct current flows involves significant energy losses, so that direct current is inefficient in this type of process.

### Alternating current

This type of current flows in two alternative directions, as the name implies. During a half cycle, the current has a positive sign and, during the remaining cycle, it adopts a negative sign.

The graphical representation of this type of current in relation to time reflects a sinusoidal curve, whose movement varies periodically.

In alternating current, popularly known as AC by its acronym in English ( alternating current ), the direction of circulation of electrons changes every half cycle.

Currently, alternating current is used in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity all over the world, thanks to its high levels of efficiency in the energy transport process.

In addition, voltage transformers allow the transmission system voltage to rise and fall rapidly, which helps to optimize technical losses due to conductor heating during the process.

## real examples

Dynamic electricity, in the form of direct current and in the form of alternating current, is present in our lives in many daily applications. Some tangible examples of everyday dynamic electricity are:

– Electric generators that supply electricity to large cities, whether by hydroelectric or wind turbines, thermoelectric plants and even solar panels, among other mechanisms.

– Household electrical outlets, through which household appliances and other household items that require electricity are supplied, are the local electricity supplier for residential use.

– Batteries for vehicles or cell phones, as well as household batteries for portable devices. All of this works with electrochemical arrangements that induce direct current circulation, bringing the ends of the device together.

– Electrified fences, also known as electric fences, operate from the discharge of direct current, which expels the person, animal or object that makes direct contact with the fence.

## Do you have health risks?

Electric current presents multiple risks to human health, as it can cause severe burns and lacerations, and may even kill an individual, depending on the intensity of the shock.

To assess the effects of electrical current flowing through the body, two basic factors must be considered: the intensity of the current and the duration of exposure to it.

For example, if a current of 100 mA flows through an average person’s heart for half a second, there is a high probability of ventricular fibrillation occurring; that is, the heart begins to tremble.

In this case, the heart stops pumping blood regularly to the body as the heart’s natural movements (systole and diastole) do not occur and the circulatory system is severely affected.

In addition, in the face of an electric shock, muscle contractions are produced that produce premature movements in the bodies of affected people. Consequently, people are vulnerable to falls and serious injuries.