Electric current is the orderly movement between electric charges present in a metallic conductor.
This organization of movement happens when an electric field is created inside this conductor, causing its free electrons to develop an orderly movement.
This term, electric current, originates from an old conception about electricity being a fluid capable of being channeled by conductors.
Direction of electric current
Real direction: it occurs in solid conductors, it is the movement of electrons and it happens from the negative pole to the positive pole.
Conventional direction: it is the direction of the electric current that corresponds to the direction of the electric field inside the conductor, which goes from the positive to the negative pole.
NOTE: The conventional sense is always used for electrical current analysis.
It is calculated through the mathematical representation:
i = current intensity
Q = electric charge
Δt = time variation
Its unit in the International System of Units is the Ampere (A) Types of Alternating
Electric Current – It is the type of current supplied by hydroelectric plants, whose intensity and direction vary periodically used in homes. Continuous – It is one that keeps its direction constant, such as, for example, the currents established by car batteries and batteries. Effects of Electric Current Thermal Effect or Joule – When a conductor heats up due to the collision between free electrons and atoms. Light Effect –
When there is direct transformation of electrical energy into light energy. When electrolysis occurs.
Magnetic Effect – When a magnetic field is created near the region of the conductor traversed by the electric current.