Electroscopy is the study of electrostatic phenomena through a device that identifies the electrification of a body.
Electroscopy – is the study of electrostatic phenomena through devices called electroscopes (devices capable of verifying whether a body is electrified).
Electroscopes are also known as electrostatic detectors.
Electrification – is the definition of the behavior of bodies that have the power to attract or repel other bodies.
This definition began in the 6th century BC, when the philosopher Thales, a resident of the city of Miletus, found a fossil resin called amber, ( elektron ), and rubbed it with animal skin. He then observed that, after friction, the amber had the power to attract other bodies, like dry straws.
So, from the beginning of this discovery, studies were developed and with them new terms were created to define this attraction between bodies, or the distance between them.
This is observed in the electrostatic principles which state that bodies of the same sign repel each other and of opposite signs attract each other.
In electrification, one can also observe bodies that have the power to conduct or insulate electricity.
This is the case of metallic materials and the human body which, because they have free electrons, allow the passage of electrical charges through them, and therefore are considered good electrical conductors, unlike insulating bodies such as rubber which, because they do not have free electrons, do not allow electrons to pass through them, being considered poor conductors.
In the study of electrification, the types of electrification are also observed, divided into three moments: friction, contact and induction.
Electroscope – is the device responsible for identifying the electrification of a body. If a body is electrified, the electroscope will easily identify it.
There are two very common types of electroscopes, the electrostatic pendulum and the leaf electroscope.
Electrostatic Pendulum – When approaching the electrified pendulum (2) to neutral (1), the electrified body attracts the neutral body.
Leaf Electroscope – When approaching a positively charged body, the electrons from the top of the electroscope pass to the rod reaching the same electrical charge as the leaves, causing them to move away.
Currently, electroscopy is applied in several areas such as protection against external electric fields, scientific research, radiation phenomena, among others.