Gasoline or Naphtha (fuel) – Characteristics and properties

Gasoline , naphtha  or benzine is a hydrocarbon of fossil origin that is used as fuel in internal combustion engines ; combustion , generated by a spark inside the cylinders, emits mechanical energy that will propel the different moving parts, and we will obtain the known result; To a lesser extent, it has other uses such as stove/lamp fuel, solvent cleaner, etc.

Let’s know the characteristics and both physical and chemical properties of this fuel, just as we will make a comparison with other similar fuels, such as diesel .

gasoline properties

  • Density of 680 kg/m³ , which corresponds to up to 20% less than gas oil or diesel , which has 850 kg/m³.
  • Post combustion, each liter of gasoline generates 34.78 MJ (megajoules) of energy . A liter of gasoline has about 10% less energy than diesel, which has 38.65 MJ megajoules of energy per liter of fuel.
  • When it comes to mass , gasoline has 3.55 more energy.

Gasoline Characteristics

We will mention the most important characteristics of gasoline, and next to it, a direct comparison with diesel .

  • It is obtained by direct distillation – Due to this, it corresponds to a lighter fraction in the liquid state of petroleum , hence its lower density.
  • Efficiency – Everything is measured and compared based on specific objectives; if the objective is to generate torque , power, force or traction then it is less efficient than diesel ; if the objective is to generate reaction, precision and speed, it is more efficient than diesel .
  • Pollution – Under standard and/or similar conditions, it is just a bit more polluting than diesel.
      • CO 2 emissions from gasoline engines : 73.38 g/MJ
      • CO 2 emissions from diesel engines : 73.25 g/MJ.
  • Octane and volatility – It has a higher octane number, and therefore, greater volatility than diesel. If we are looking for performance/acceleration, higher octane gasoline is better. If we are looking for efficiency and durability, the lower octane rating and higher stability of diesel is better.
  • Working temperature and compression – Being a more volatile compound than diesel, it therefore needs to work at a lower temperature and in turn with a lower working compression.
  • Like diesel, gasoline is derived from petroleum, and therefore is a type of non-renewable energy .
  • Consumption – Under similar conditions (displacement, power), generally higher consumption than diesel engines ; They work at lower compression, but higher number of turns (RPM), which increases consumption.

types of gasoline

The diversity of gasoline is closely related to the octane number or the octane rating that it has. This is an index that assesses the anti-knock capacity of the fuel inside the cylinder, so that the octane number indicates the degree of depression and temperature that gasoline can withstand when mixed with air before spontaneously exploding, without requiring the spark from a spark plug to cause combustion.

The higher the octane number, the more compression the fluid will support , which makes for better performance and lower consumption . That is why gasoline with a higher octane rating is suitable for cars with a sporty profile that require a great use of power.

Octane 95 and its properties

The gasoline that has 95 octane is the one that marks the minimum octane value allowed in some countries . Its use has several advantages, such as a better price and the ease it offers when starting from cold. It has lower density, it is the lightest and the one that is usually used in almost all cars. Those who manufacture cars and vehicles recognize the following benefits:

  • Extends and protects the life of the engine.
  • Keeps propeller parts clean.
  • Improves car performance.
  • Reduces sulfur in the composition, which lowers the level of pollutant emission.

Octane 98 and its properties

Gasoline with 98 octane is more refined chemically and provides slight differences in engine performance and consumption . But it requires high displacement and power to perceive it. Some of the benefits derived from its use are:

  • Less sulfur or even completely free of this compound, which makes it a clean and safe option.
  • In its composition it has new additives of last generation.
  • It favors engine performance, protects it and reduces consumption.
  • Extends catalyst life.
  • Improves the performance of high-end vehicles.

Advantages of gasoline engines

The engine that uses gasoline as fuel has many attractive features, which is why most cars use this compound to function. For example, some advantages are:

  • It has low polluting properties.
  • It can make the motor spin faster, making it a machine with good strength and power .
  • The engine that uses gasoline as fuel works quieter , faster and is easier to repair than the diesel engine .
  • Generally speaking, cars that use gasoline are cheaper .
  • The necessary budgets in terms of maintenance and replacement of parts are also cheaper.

To take into account: Cars that use gasoline have the disadvantage of needing a higher fuel consumption than those that use diesel.

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