Mechanics

# How did the plane come about?

The emergence of aviation is one of the great technological evolutions of humanity. The creation of the plane was a major milestone in history, as it significantly reduced travel time between two cities. For example, to travel from Ouro Preto to Rio de Janeiro it took about 12 days, today with 50 minutes it is possible to make the same journey.

The plane originated with a Brazilian of French descent, named Alberto Santos Dummont, whose life was invaded by the dream of flying. Not only he, but also the North American brothers Wilbur and Orville Wrigh carried out numerous flight experiments, seeking to make an object heavier than air able to fly. However, at that time there were already some vehicles such as, for example, balloons and zeppelins, which were able to place themselves above the clouds based on Archimedes’ principles, however they did not have the autonomy to fly, they did not satisfy man’s dreams for numerous reasons such as , for example, the fact of not being able to completely control the destination of the flight of these vehicles. It was on October 23, 1906 that Alberto S. Dummont presented a rustic airplane to a judging commission, the 14-Bis, thus marking the origin of aviation.

But how is it possible for a vehicle, being heavier than air, to fly? When in the air the plane does not fall because there are forces acting on it, counterbalancing its weight, but as the weight is directed downwards, the force that balances it in the air is directed upwards. What makes a plane not crash is actually its speed and its wings.

An airplane’s wings are designed and constructed so that they cut through the air. When the plane is in motion, its wings cut through the air, causing the speed of the air passing over the wing to be greater than the speed of the air passing under it, thus creating an upward force balancing the airplane. That is, the air pressure at the bottom of the plane is greater than at the top, pushing the plane up, it is this force that keeps it in the air. Thus, the greater the weight of the plane, the greater its speed must be so that it can take off and remain in balance in the air.