How does a wind farm work?

The wind is one of the renewable and clean sources used to generate electrical energy , and they do so through wind turbines , structures that enable the transformation of dynamic energy into electricity.

A single wind turbine is not enough to supply the needs of a population , and for this reason the set of wind turbines working in the same space is known as a wind farm .

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What is a wind farm?

The wind farm is a set of wind turbines grouped in a specific area, relatively close to each other. These can be built on land or in the sea. Although the former are more common, the maritime ones have achieved significant growth in recent years, especially in Europe, where wind energy is becoming more important.

What is a wind farm for?

The wind turbines present in a wind farm fulfill the function of transforming dynamic energy from the wind into electricity . The amount of power they provide differs according to design variants, turbine locations, and efficiency . Previously, turbines were less adaptable to changes in wind speed and direction.

How does a wind farm work?

The operation of a wind farm is based on how a set of wind turbines works. Although there are many types of wind turbines, they all have basic components that work in the same way in all cases, as explained below:

  1. The blades begin to rotate due to the action of the wind.
  2. The movement of these huge blades causes the hub to rotate.
  3. The movement of the bushing drives a slow speed shaft, which can turn 10 to 20 revolutions per minute.
  4. The energy of the rotary movement reaches the multiplier, a box with gears that allows the speed of the turn to be increased. Revolutions reach 1500 turns per minute. There are wind turbines that do not have this component.
  5. The accelerated movement is transmitted to the generator, where the mechanical energy is transformed into electricity.
  6. The electricity goes down through the tower to transfer it to the network and be distributed to the different electricity supply points.
  7. Generally, in wind farms, wind turbines send the energy to a transformation substation  to then transfer it to a transformation substation and then to the network.

Analysis before setting up a wind farm

The number of wind turbine units that make up the wind farm is variable and will depend mainly on the surface available and the characteristics of the wind at the site . Before installing a wind farm of this kind, it is necessary to analyze the wind for some time, almost always a little over a year. Once the information is collected, a wind rose is drawn that indicates the prevailing directions of the wind and the speed it brings.

Finally, the decision is made, choosing the optimal positions and the appropriate class of wind turbine to be installed. When the phase to develop the project has arrived, it is necessary to process the required licenses and permits.

Current statistics of wind farms in the world

For the first half of 2020 , the current data is obviously favorable for wind energy in Europe.

We will see the situation in Europe (General), Spain, Argentina and Mexico.

Wind farms in Europe

In Europe they are widely accepted, to the point that Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain stand out in this category; Germany, in particular, is home to the largest number of wind farms in the world .

The declared total power is not updated, but it far exceeds the 90,000 MW of production capacity .

Wind farms in Spain

According to the REE 2013 report, the production of wind energy through wind farms was capable of contributing 21.1% of the electrical energy consumed in that year in Spain.

As of 2013, the installed capacity for energy production through wind farms in Spain was 22,746 MW; today that number rises to 30,000 MW.

Wind farms in Argentina

At the end of 2011, the installed capacity was only 167 MW; At the end of 2019, one of the largest parks in Argentina was inaugurated with a productive capacity of 150MW (in Madryn), and Argentina already exceeds 1,000 MW of installed power .

In addition, there is an increase in installed power of 2,500 MW (in addition to the current +1,000) under development (2020-2022 period) which, if all goes well, will be ready shortly.

Wind farms in Mexico

There are few wind farms, but all of them have a great productive capacity; as of 2014 there was a productive capacity of 3,527 MW , and although it is not defined, as of 2020 it is estimated that it exceeds 6,000 MW .

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